Module 10.1 – I went to a library AND read a book

The above sentence is a compound sentence connected by “and.” In Japanese, the particle can only connect 2 nouns in the sense “bread and butter.”
In order to connect 2 or more sentences, verbs and adjectives, we need to use what is called the てform.

How to connect 2 sentences

Here we use an example sentence “I go to the library and I read a book.”

  1. Ignore “and” and make 2 separate sentences.
    I go to the library => わたしは としょかんに いきます。
    I read a book => わたしは ほんを よみます。
    As わたしは is repeated, the second one can be omitted.
  2. Change the verb of the first sentence into its てform.
    いきます=> いって
  3. Add a comma after the first clause (= a sentence which is part of a longer sentence) and combine.
    わたしは としょかんに いって、ほんを よみます。

3 types of Verbs

Before we talk about てform itself, we need to talk about 3 kinds of verbs. All Japanese verbs are divided into the following 3 groups.

  • irregular verbs – します (to do), きます (to come), いきます (to go) and あります (to exist)
  • 1-dan verbs – only its ending changes. Also called “るverb.”
  • 5-dan verbs – follow the rules shown in the song below. Also called “うverb.”

Up until now whenever the new verbs were introduced the last column said “i,” “1” or “5.” These marks correspond to one of the above.

How to Change to てform

  • Verbs
    • ichi-dan verbs: -ます ⇒ -て
    • go-dan verbs: change depending on the letter before ます
      • -い、-ち、-り・ます ⇒ って
        • かいます⇒かって (to buy)
        • まちます⇒まって (to wait)
        • とります⇒とって (to take)
      • -み、-に、-び・ます ⇒ んで
        • のみます⇒のんで (to drink)
        • しにます⇒しんで (to die – sorry it’s not a nice word, but this is the only 5-dan verb in the な line)
        • とびます⇒とんで ( to fly, to jump)
      • -きます ⇒ いて
        • ききます⇒きいて (to listen to)
      • -ぎます ⇒ いで
        • いそぎます⇒いそいで (to hurry)
      • -します ⇒ して
        • かします⇒かして ( to lend)
    • irregular verbs
      • きます ⇒ きて (to come)
      • します ⇒ して (to do)
      • いきます ⇒ いって (to go)
  • いadjectives: -い ⇒ くて
  • なadjectives: add で (This で comes from です)

てform song


  1. きのう テレビで みて、すぐに かいに いきました。
    I saw it on TV yesterday and went to buy it straight away.
  2. きのう ケーキを かって、きょう たべました。
    I bought a cake yesterday and ate it today.
  3. まいにち 5キロ はしって、1キロ およぎます。
    I run 5 kms and swim 1 km everyday.
  4. まいにち ほんを よんで、おいのりして から ねます。
    I go to bed every night after I read and pray.
  5. まいにち 日本語の ラジオを きいて、日本語を べんきょうします。
    Everyday I listen to a Japanese radio program and study Japanese.
  6. きのうは 3キロ およいで、5キロあるきました。
    Yesterday I swam 3 kms and walked 5 kms.
  7. ははは たくさん かいものを して、つぎの ひに いろいろな りょうりを つくりました。
    My mum did lots of shopping and cooked various dishes next day.
  8. あした かいものに いって、けいたいを かいます。
    I will go shopping tomorrow and buy a mobile phone.
  9. このケーキは あまくて、おいしいです。
    This cake is sweet and nice.
  10. ジョンさんは せがたかくて、ハンサムです。
    John is tall and handsome.
  11. メアリーさんは きれいで、しんせつです。(きれい is a なadjective)
    Mary is pretty and kind.
  12. この やさいは しんせんで、おいしかったです。
    This vegetable was fresh and delicious.
  13. わたしは 日本人 日本語の きょうし です。(で is connecting 2 ideas here, not just 2 nouns.)
    I’m a Japanese national and I’m a Japanese language teacher.

Suggestion for Activities

  • Change the following verbs into てform.
  • Choose 2 of the following verbs and make a sentence that describes what you do/did in the chronological order.

1-dan verbs

あけますto open
いれますto put in
うまれますto be born
おきますto get up, to rise
おしえますto teach, to tell, to inform
おぼえますto remember, to memorize
おりますto alight (e.g. from bus), to get off
かけますto put on (e.g. glasses)
かけますto dial/call (e.g. phone)
かりますto borrow, to have a loan
きえますto go out, to vanish
きますto put on (from shoulders down, waist up)
こたえますto answer, to reply
しめますto close, to shut
しめますto tie, to fasten
つかれますto get tired, to tire
つけますto turn on (e.g. a light)
つとめますto serve, to work (for), to make efforts
でかけますto go out
できますto be made, to be able
でますto appear, to leave
ねますto go to bed, to lie down
みせますto show, to display
わすれますto forget

5-dan Verbs

あきますto open, to become open
あらいますto wash
いりますto be needed
うたいますto sing
うりますto sell
おきますto put, to place
おしますto push, to press
おわりますto finish, to close
かえしますto return something
かかりますto take (time), to cost
かしますto lend
かぶりますto put on (to cover the head)
こまりますto be at a loss, to be bothered
さきますto bloom
さしますto point, to indicate, to raise (e.g. umbrella), to pour (water)
しにますto die
しまりますto close, to be closed
しりますto get to know
すいますto smoke, to breathe in, to suck
すみますto reside, to live in
すわりますto sit
たちますto stand up
たのみますto request, to ask
ちがいますto differ, to be different
つきますto arrive at, to reach
とまりますto come to a halt, to stop
とりますto take
なきますto cry, to wee, (for a bird) to sing, (for an animal) to make sound
なくしますto lose something
ならいますto learn, to have lessons of
ならびますto line up, to stand in a line
ぬぎますto take off clothes
はいりますto enter, to contain, to hold
はきますto put on (something waist down)
はじまりますto begin
はたらきますto work
はりますto stick, to paste
ひきますto play (string instrument)
ひきますto pull
ふきますto blow (wind, etc)
まがりますto turn, to warp
まちますto wait
みがきますto brush (teeth), to polish
もちますto hold, to possess, to have
やすみますto rest, to have a break, to take a day off
やりますto do
よびますto call out, to invite
わかりますto be clear (enough to be understood)
わたしますto pass over, to hand over
わたりますto cross over, to go across
Course: JLPT N5