You had a busy day and you feel tired. Which one would you say to your family when you get home?
My answer is a. つかれた. つかれる is a verb that means “to get/become tired,” so at the end of the day, you can say “I have gotten tired” = つかれた. This comment indicates that you have gotten tired at work (= past) but that you may recover and feel more energetic after a while (= not necessarily carrying over to the future).
However, if you feel exhausted even after having a rest, then you should say c. つかれている (= the current state). [てform]+いる indicates that that is a continuing condition or action from sometime in the past to sometime in the future.
If your children are noisy, you may have to say:
(= Be quiet because I am tired.)
or you may have to go to bed saying:
(= I’m already going to bed because I am tired.)
If anyone says つかれている, I will be somewhat worried about that person.
Of course, if the verb used is a real action verb, such as みる/みます or する/します, that indicates a continuous action. Like:
= I’m watching TV. (as opposed to I watch TV everyday.)
=I’m playing tennis. (as opposed to I usually play tennis)
b. つかれていた is the past version of つかれている, which indicates that you were exhausted at one point in the past and that condition lasted for a while but you have recovered since then.
きのうは つかれていたから はやく ねました。
= As I was tired yesterday, I went to bed early.
d. Non-past plain verbs are usually used for a current recurring action (not a continuous action) or an action that is certain to take place in the future. For that reason, つかれる is used to describe a person gets/feels tired repeatedly, rather than “somebody IS tired.”
としを とったから このごろは すぐに つかれる。
= These days I get tired quickly because I’m old.
However, つかれる can also be used like an adjective and it means “tiresome” or “exhausting.”
この しごとは つかれる。
= This job is tiresome.
あの ひとは つかれる ひとだ。
= He is an exhausting person.
2 thoughts on “～する vs ～している”
[verbてform] + います | EasyJapaneseE29 March 2021 at 8:00 am
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[…] Monday’s post was about the “[てform]+います” pattern, which is to describe a continuing state […]