Today’s Grammar Point: ～とも
～とも has the meanings of “all ～” or “inclusive of ～.” The kanji for that is 共 but in this meaning, we usually write it in Hiragana.
When it means “all ～”
- [a number] + [counter] とも
I have two younger sisters, both of whom are single.
I bought three cakes, but they were delicious so I ate all three.
We are a family of four, but all four dislike tofu.
All five uniform shirts aren’t dry, so I don’t have a shirt to wear to school.
All six books that John bought yesterday are in Japanese.
All seven kittens born yesterday were male.
There are nine songs on this CD, and all nine songs are really good.
All ten girls in the class choose physics.
Sometimes, ～とも can be used after a word that suggests a pair like 男女 (male and female), 夫婦 (husband and wife), 両親 (parents), 母子 (mother and child), 両方 (both), etc. even if it is not preceded with a number.
Life expectancy is increasing for both men and women.
Both my parents live in Japan.
Both mother and child are fine.
Both Kinkakuji and Ginkakuji were built during the Muromachi period.
When it means “inclusive of ～” or “including ～”
- [noun*] とも
*This noun should be an additional item, not the main item.
600 yen for both the magazine and its appendix.
The price is 5000 yen including the postage.
The lift ticket is valid for two days including the day of issue.
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